Friday, May 22, 2020
Assignment 1 Describe PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s FiveÃ¢â¬âForce model and how it is helpful when developing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s international strategy. Do you see any limitation to PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s modeling techniques? Michael Porter s Five-Force model, as described and illustrated in Ã¢â¬Å"PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis (Article from QuickMBA.com)Ã¢â¬ , goes beyond the traditional industry competitive analysis that would just compare Rivals, both current and potential, to include Suppliers and Buyers and also Product or Service Substitutes. I have not yet read PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Competitive StrategyÃ¢â¬ (1980), but understand that it is the definitive work on the introduction of the Porter Five-Force model (1979) and describes how the model can be used as a tool to not onlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There also may be a timing and applicability challenge given that any of the five forces may change through time because of emergent factors which will require a revalidation of the strategy due to a change in one or more of the five forces. Another limitation on the model may be that PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective appears to be at the Industry level. Dr. Aktouf, in his article Ã¢â¬Å"The False Expectations of Michael PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Management Framework: 04/11/2004Ã¢â¬ stated that PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s work is at the meso-economic level and that the type of business itself is Ã¢â¬Å"kind of a black boxÃ¢â¬ . The model seems to emphasize and evaluate an industry holistically and not on the strengths and weaknesses of individual firms. He concludes that PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s model overemphasizes the importance of industry structure as a determinant of company performance and underemphasizes the importance of differences between companies within an industry. However, Dr. Aktouf also commends Porter for going beyond the existing models in 1979 such as the Boston Consulting GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio model Ã¢â¬Å"based on an analysis of advantages and disadvantages which limited them to the microeconomic levelÃ¢â¬ . His most serious objection to what is called theShow MoreRelatedPorters Five Forces1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction The porter forces model was first developed in 1979 by Michael .F. Porter of the Harvard as structure for assessing and evaluating the competitive position and power of an organization, the model is grounded on the concept that there are five forces which ascertain the competitive intensity of the market (Porter, 2008). Figure 1.1 shows a diagram of the five forces model, (Flesicher, 2007) PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model is quite useful and it provides a number of benefits , its mostRead MorePorters Five Forces786 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPorters Five Forces Porters Five Forces allowed us to analyse the influences on the industry in which Tesco operates. It highlights where Tesco has developed a competitive edge over its rivals. Potential entrants: Throughout the recession Tesco has continued to invest into expanding the company and developing efficiencies, making it as competitive as ever to defend against the threat of new entrants (Datamonitor, 2010, p. 19). The threat of a new competitor entering this sector is relativelyRead MorePorters Five Forces640 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn a landmark article published in the March/April 1979 issue of the Harvard Business Review, Michael Porter identified five competitive forces that determine if you should enter a new market segment. The Ã¢â¬Å"Five ForcesÃ¢â¬ are: 1. Intense Rivalry. A category can already have too much competition between aggressive competitors, which can be amplified by high fixed costs or exit barriers or if the current category members have high stakes in staying in the segment. A hyper-competitive environment willRead MorePorters Five Forces3126 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesPorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Model Porters five forces Each element of a Porters five forces model is best considered in the context of other elements in the model. Examples: supplier power is increased if there is a high degree of rivalry between companies trying to obtain the supplies; entry barriers are increased if there is a substitutes threat. A Porter s five forces analysis can be usefully performed alongside SWOT analysis, PESTLE analysis, and other analysis techniques. The next two sectionsRead MoreJetstar - Porters Five Forces689 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces After the analysis of JetstarÃ¢â¬â¢s societal environment with the use of PEST, the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces can be used to analyse another aspect of the external environment; the task environment. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces is a framework that consists of five competitive forces, threat of entry, power of supplier and buyer, threat of substitution and competitive rivalry. These forces facilitate the analysis of the task environment of an industry or company (Wheelen and Hunger, 2009)Read MorePorters Five Forces : Strategic Forces1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Entrepreneurs who are ready to start their business today might need to take a second and gather industry information in regards to profitability together before taking a plunge into their chosen industry. Professor Michael Porter developed has developed five competitive forces that if applied to the selected industry the framework will determine profitability. Any change among one of the forces will have an impact on the overall profitability of the company. We will describeRead MorePorters Five Forces Analysis1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa methodology called the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Analysis. In his book Competitive Strategy, Harvard professor Michael Porter describes five forces affecting the profitability of companies. These are the five forces he noted: 1. Intensity of rivalry amongst existing competitors 2. Threat of entry by new competitors 3. Pressure from substitute products 4. Bargaining power of buyers (customers) 5. Bargaining power of suppliers These five forces, taken together, give usRead MorePorters Five Forces Model2693 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesDescribe and discuss Micheal Porters competitive forces model and how information systems may be used to influence a firms competitive position within its industry. Provide a defensive and an entrepreneurial example of how information technology/systems could be used to influence each of the forces. Porters Five Forces Model Porters Five Forces model is often used as a tool for analyzing industries and competitive structures within them. An industrys profit potential is determined by eitherRead MorePorters Five Forces Example1825 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¢â¬ËTake an industry of your choice, perhaps one you would like to work for, and assess it in terms of: (a) concentration (b) PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s model of five forces. From this analyze one or more of the major competitors in terms of their chosen competitive strategiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Introduction Since the nineteenth century, ice cream with its beautiful, cold, happy and sweet feeling has been loved by people all around the world. In 2007, data shows that the ice cream consumption in theRead MorePorters Five Forces on Wynn Resorts746 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesResorts was granted concession for its land application for 52 acres on MacauÃ¢â¬â¢s Cotai Strip (Pearce Robinson, 2013). The remainder of this critical thinking assignment will answer questions concerning this expansion strategy, as well as apply PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces model to determine whether growth should be pursued at this point. Question 1 Where will the Wynn on the Cortai Strip fit on the Wynn Resorts Ltd. growth and expansion strategy? Is there support to make a significant capital investment in
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Finding the Best Miller 's Tale Essay Topics Jealousy in marriage contributes to infidelity when a spouse receives an opportunity. The author brings out the notion that infidelity occurs along with several different vices like treachery and hypocrisy. Infidelity has been there for quite a while and cannot be eradicated. Infidelity inside this case comes as a consequence of trickery, in addition to revenge. Margaret Atwood described something which may occur if nothing is done to modify the present trends. Smith on the type of jealousy that the Miller understands the sort of jealousy that's inspired by envy and selfishness, not that which stems from the should uphold the chastity of someone's wife. Absolon is the 1 suitor that attempts to woo Alison with a classic romantic attitude to courting. the Miller's Tale Essay Topics - Is it a Scam? You just procreate to create babies. He knows that the lady can't resist him because he's young and attractive when compared to John. A lady shouldn't ever act in such a fashion. Marrying a youthful lady comes out as injustice to the lady. The Handmaid's Taleessay proves that though the novel is an exaggeration, it portrays the simple fact that women continue to be oppressed in today's world. Furthermore, it is clear that Atwood was also thinking about another similarity the use of women. Atwood isn't particularly hopeful about women and p ower and agency as a way of changing the conditions in which they're trapped. He has placed all of these themes together to show that in reality, even though we have laws in place to protect women, at some point that won't be enough. Women and men don't make love anymore. Analyze the passage that begins Women weren't protected then. Women were not able to take part in church functions by any means. They are the stronger characters as they are the ones who are able to procreate. Some individuals only want to keep different people out even should they must ride buses due to the fact that they don't have a vehicle. She even shows evidence from the newspapers to verify that a few of the plots have occurred in the actual world or history. The same is applicable to outbreaks of infectious diseases like SARS and Ebola. True, there might be some benefit to get others that are very similar to yourself which may relieve strain and permit a much healthier learning atmosphere. As a consequence, it shows us how an overly controlled world only results in destruction in the long run. It's told from the first-person perspective. It is clear that no other facets would have so drastic consequences in the event the relig ious fundamentalists did not take the ability in america and made a theocratic Republic of Gilead instead. Traditionalism and conservative views formed the mainstream of politics around the world, not just in the usa. Taking the assistance of Professional Content writers to find a well written fairy tale essay is undoubtedly a great idea. To conclude, it's evident that there's a vast number of humour in the tale, which appeals to the huge audience. Essays are definitely the most popular academic paper that looks might appear easy to writer. The principal character is, in addition, the narrator and tells the story from the first-person standpoint, which makes it more of an autobiography. It's arguably the ideal memoir of the Rising. If you believe it's not sufficient to create an ideal fairy tale essay, you may use our suggestions. It's like a horror story, but it's not the normal type of horror fantasy, since it is so realistic. Fairy tales are always connected with childhood. The New Angle On the Miller's Tale Essay Topics Just Released Essay Rewriter utilizes the ability of paraphrasing to guard students from the frequent problem of being accused of plagiarism. Manual mode in the Essay Rewriter makes it possible for you to learn how much to paraphrase and you may control precisely what changes you prefer to make to the original text. This isn't an instance of the work generated by our Essay Writing Service. Therefore, the reader can find information that's as near the simple fact a first-person interpretation of those facts. The interview A copywriter is normally an attentive listener and within this phase he rather speaks but attempt to attain a deeper knowledge of product or services supplied by the customer! The thesis statement is additionally a fantastic test for the range of your intent. It should remain flexible until the paper is actually finished. It's possible to turn for assistance at any moment and become qualified help. There's also no order to how the tales should be told. Moira is an obvious role model for those handmaids, especially Offred. What Does the Miller's Tale Essay Topics Mean? Chaucer is showing the contrast between the domain of knights and that of the usual individuals. It's possible to come up with a comprehension of the character from her description of herself. The aforementioned phrase could be employed to describe nearly every work in the fab liau genre. This makes him a comical character because he's so un stereotypical it is funny.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Lab Report #1 Introduction A cellÃ¢â¬â¢s plasma membrane is known to be selectively permeable. This implies that the membrane is selective on what substances can pass in and out of the cell. There are two methods of transport that occur through the plasma membrane. We will write a custom essay sample on Molecular Biology Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now One method of transport is called active process which uses ATP energy to transport substances through the membrane. The other method is called passive process which does not require the use of ATP energy. During passive processes, molecules are transported through the membrane by differences in concentration or pressure between the inside and outside of the cell. Two important types of passive process are diffusion and filtration. Every cell in the human body uses diffusion as an important transport process through its selectively permeable membrane. During diffusion, molecules that are small enough to pass through a membraneÃ¢â¬â¢s pores or molecules that can dissolve in the lipid section of a membrane move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. The kinetic energy that all molecules possess is the motivating force in diffusion. Facilitated diffusion occurs when molecules are too large to pass through a membrane or are lipid insoluble. In this process, carrier protein molecules located in the membrane combine with solutes and transport them down the concentration gradient. Filtration is another type of passive process and, unlike diffusion; this is not a selective process. The pressure gradient on each side of the membrane as well as the membrane pore size depends on the amount of solutes and fluids in the filtrate. During filtration, water and solute molecules pass through a membrane from an area of higher hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower hydrostatic pressure. This means that water and solutes would pass through a selectively permeable membrane along the pressure gradient. To gain a better understanding of a cellÃ¢â¬â¢s selectively permeable membrane and the passive processes of simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and filtration, three experiments were conducted. Materials and Methods Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion) Materials: ? two glass beakers ? four dialysis membranes: 20 (MWCO), 50 (MWCO), 100 (MWCO), and 200 (MWCO) ? membrane holder ? membrane barrier ? four solutes: NaCl, Urea, Albumin, and Glucose solution dispenser ? deionized water ? timer ? beaker flush This experiment was conducted first by placing the 20 (MWCO) dialysis membrane into the membrane holder. The membrane holder joined the two glass beakers; one on the left side and one on the right side. Then, 9. 00 mM of NaCl concentration was dispensed into the left beaker. Deionized water was dispensed in the right beaker. When the timer was started, t he barrier that surrounded the membrane holder was lowered to allow the contents of each beaker to come in contact with the membrane. After the 60 minutes of compressed time elapsed, results were read and recorded. Finally, each beaker was then flushed for preparation of the next experiment run. These exact steps were followed using each dialysis membrane size (20, 50, 100, and 200) as well as with each solute (NaCl, Urea, Albumin, and Glucose). There were a total of sixteen runs in this experiment. Activity 2: Simulating Facilitated Diffusion Materials: ? two glass beakers ? membrane builder ? membrane holder ? glucose concentration ? solution dispenser ? deionized water ? timer beaker flush In this experiment, the first step was to adjust the glucose carrier to 500 in order to correctly build the membrane. Next, a membrane was built in the membrane builder by inserting 500 glucose carrier proteins into it. Then, the newly built membrane was placed into the membrane holder that joined the two glass beakers. The two glass beakers were joined on the left and right sides of the membrane holder. After that, 2. 00 mM o f glucose concentration was dispensed into the left beaker. The right beaker was filled with deionized water. The barrier around the membrane holder dropped when the timer was started. After 60 minutes of compressed time elapsed, the results were read and recorded. Finally, both glass beakers were flushed to prepare for the next experimental runs. The above mentioned steps were repeated by increasing the glucose concentration to 8. 00. Both the 2. 00 mM and the 8. 00 mM glucose concentration solution were tested using membranes built with 500, 700, and 900 glucose carrier proteins. There were a total of six experimental runs. Activity 4: Simulating Filtration Materials: ? two glass beakers membrane holder ? 4 dialysis membranes: 20 (MWCO), 50 (MWCO), 100 (MWCO), and 200 (MWCO) ? 4 solutions: Na+Cl? , Urea, glucose, and powdered charcoal ? solution dispenser ? pressure unit ? timer ? filtration rate indicator ? membrane residue analysis analyzer ? beaker flush In the final experiment, the two glass beakers were placed one on top of the other with the membrane holder between them. The pressure unit that rested on the top beaker was used for forcing the solution from the top beaker through the selected membrane and into the bottom beaker. The bottom beaker contained nothing; however, the filtration rate indicator was attached to it from one side. The experiment began by placing the 20 (MWCO) dialysis membrane into the membrane holder. Then, 5. 00 mg/ml of each of the following solutions: Na+Cl? , Urea, glucose, and powdered charcoal were dispensed into the top beaker. The pressure unit was adjusted to 50 mmHg of pressure. The timer was set to 60 minutes of compressed time and when the timer started, the membrane holder retracted. The solution then flowed through the membrane and into the beaker underneath. When the timer stopped, the membrane was then placed in the membrane residue analysis analyzer. The results were read and recorded and the beakers were flushed for the next experimental runs. All the above steps were repeated using the 50 (MWCO), 100 (MWCO), and 200 (MWCO) membranes. Results Table 1: Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion) Key: Solutes that were able to diffuse into the right beaker are indicated by a Ã¢â¬Å"+Ã¢â¬ . Solutes that were not able to diffuse into the right beaker are indicated by a Ã¢â¬Å"-Ã¢â¬Å". Membrane (MWCO) Solute (9. 0 mM) |(Pore Size) |NaCl |Urea |Albumin |Glucose | |20 |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â | |50 |+ |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â | |100 |+ |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â | |200 |+ |Ã¢â¬â |Ã¢â¬â |+ | Graph 1: Activity 2: Simulating Facilitated Diffusion Glucose Transport Rate (mM/min) [pic] Table 2 and 3: Activity 4: Simulating Filtration Table #2: Solute Residue Presence in the Membrane Key: If solute residue wa s present on the membrane, it is indicated by a Ã¢â¬Å"+Ã¢â¬ . If solute residue was not present on the membrane, it is indicated by a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å". Membrane (MWCO) |Solute |20 |50 |100 |200 | |NaCl |+ |+ |+ |+ | |Urea |+ |+ |+ |+ | |Glucose |+ |+ |+ |+ | |Powdered Charcoal |+ |+ |+ |+ | Table 3: Filtration Rate and Amount of Solute Detected in Filtrate Membrane (MWCO) |Solute |20 |50 |100 |200 | |Filtration Rate (ml/min) | | | | | | |1 |2. |5 |10 | |NaCl in filtrate (mg/ml) | | | | | | |0 |4. 81 |4. 81 |4. 81 | |Urea in filtrate (mg/ml) | | | | | | |0 |0 |4. 74 |4. 74 | |Glucose in filtrate | | | | | |(mg/ml) |0 |0 |0 |4. 9 | |Powdered Charcoal (mg/ml) | | | | | | |0 |0 |0 |0 | Discussion The first lab experiment, Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion), demonstrated how only certain molecules pass through a selectively permeable membrane down its concentration gradient. The four membranes utilized in this experiment consisted of each one being different in pore size (MWCO). The smallest pore-sized membrane was 20 (MWCO), and the largest was 200 (MWCO). The solutes that were tested in this experiment were NaCl, Urea, Albumin, and Glucose. The first solute tested, NaCl, showed that with a 20 (MWCO) membrane, no diffusion occurred into the right beaker. (Table 1) The NaCl molecules were evidently too large to pass through the 20 (MWCO) membrane because its pores were too small. Membranes 50, 100, and 200 (MWCO) did allow the NaCl to pass through. (Table 1) One of the reasons this occurred is because the pores in the above mentioned membranes were large enough to permit the passage of the NaCl molecules. The other reason diffusion occurred is because the NaCl molecules moved down its concentration gradient and into the beaker filled with deionized water. For all three membranes, equilibrium was reached in ten minutes at an average diffusion rate of 0. 0150 mM/min. As for the solute Urea, the experiment conducted showed that no diffusion occurred with all four membranes. (Table 1) Urea should have passed through membranes 100 (MWCO) and 200 (MWCO) for the reasons that its molecules are small enough and Urea is also soluble. This experiment showed that none of the Albumin molecules diffused through any of the four membranes tested. (Table 1) This is because the Albumin molecules were too large to pass through the pores of all four membranes. The final solute tested in this experiment, Glucose, showed that the molecules only diffused through the 200 (MWCO) membrane. (Table 1) Equilibrium was reached in thirty-seven minutes at an average diffusion rate of 0. 0040 mM/min. The Glucose molecules were too large to diffuse through the 20 (MWCO), 50 (MWCO), and 100 (MWCO) membranes. The second experiment, Simulating Facilitated Diffusion, explained how carrier protein molecules in the membrane effectively transported molecules that are too large or are insoluble to diffuse through the membrane. The carrier proteins in this experiment were glucose carriers and the solution was a 2. 00 (mM) and an 8. 00 (mM) glucose concentration. The 2. 00 (mM) glucose concentration was tested first with the 500 glucose carrier protein membrane then the 700 and 900 glucose carrier protein membranes. The glucose transport rate for the membrane with 500 glucose carrier proteins was 0. 0008 (mM/min). Graph 1) The membrane with 700 glucose carrier proteins showed a rate of 0. 0010 (mM/min) and the 900 glucose carrier proteins membrane had a rate of 0. 0012 (mM/min). (Graph 1) The 8. 00 (mM) glucose concentration also showed and increase in glucose transport rate with membranes that contained more glucose carrier proteins. The membrane with 500 glucose carrier proteins showed a rate of 0. 0023 (mM/min). (Graph 1) Membranes that had 700 and 900 glucose carrier proteins showed a rate of 0. 0031 and 0. 0038 (mM/min). (Graph 1) These results show that with an increase in amount of glucose carrier proteins in the membranes, transport of the glucose molecules in the concentration is more effective. A higher concentration of glucose (8. 00 mM) also increases the rate of glucose transport in a membrane with the same amount of glucose carrier proteins as a lower glucose concentration (2. 00). The final experiment, Simulating Filtration, four different solutes were forced through four membranes that contained separate pore sizes by the use of hydrostatic pressure. After each experimental run was conducted, the membrane analyses showed that residue from all four solutes were detected on each membrane. (Table 2) This indicates that some solutes did not filter through the membrane. The filtration rate (ml/min) increased as membranes with larger pores were utilized. This happened because the solute molecules were able to transport through a particular membrane at a faster rate being that the membranesÃ¢â¬â¢ pores were larger. The filtrate in the bottom beaker was analyzed and no solutes were detected with the 20 (MWCO) membrane. (Table 3) With the 50 (MWCO) membrane, only NaCl was detected in the filtrate at 4. 81 (mg/ml). (Table 3) The 100 (MWCO) membrane showed to have NaCl at 4. 81 (mg/ml) and Urea at 4. 74 (mg/ml) present in the filtrate. (Table 3) Glucose and powdered charcoal were not present. The last membrane with pore size 200 (MWCO), had the solutes NaCl at 4. 81 (mg/ml), Urea at 4. 74 (mg/ml), and Glucose at 4. 39 (mg/ml) detected in the filtrate. (Table 3) Powdered charcoal was not detected in this filtrate. Table 3) The molecules in powdered charcoal were too large to pass through any of the membranes tested. The 20 (MWCO) membrane pores were too small to allow any solute molecules to pass through. The membranes that contained lar ger pores allowed the solutes with larger pores pass through. The amounts (mg/ml) of the same solute detected in the filtrate were the same for each membrane. (Table 3) This is because the pressure that was released into the top beaker remained at 50 (mmHg) for all experiment runs. References Marieb, Elaine N. , Mitchell, Susan J. (2008). Exercise 5B. Human Anatomy Physiology Laboratory Manual Ninth Edition (pp. PEx-5 Ã¢â¬â PEx-13). San Francisco, California: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. How to cite Molecular Biology Paper, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Man was born free and is everywhere in chains Paper The main anarchist analysis of the state was formulated in the 18th century. Nicolas Walter commented in the journal Anarchy: The anarchist literature weighs heavily on the present, and makes it hard for us to produce a new literature of the future. And yet, though, the works of our predecessors are numerous, most of them are out of print and mostly out of date. 7 In discussing the state another major theorist, Kropotkin provides insight. He indicates history as vital to understanding the concept of the state. Men have lived in societies for thousands of years before having known the state. For European nations the state hardly dates from the 16th century. 8 The fact that societies existed well before state oppression suggests the possibility of returning. Also, even though the state may evolve and change its form, essentially the freedom of the individual has not. As Kropotkin continues, it comes from France having remained as much a state as it was thirty years ago. The holders of power have changed their name; but all the immense scaffolding of centralised organization they remain. We will write a custom essay sample on Man was born free and is everywhere in chains specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Man was born free and is everywhere in chains specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Man was born free and is everywhere in chains specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer 9 The Anarchists deplore in particular two organs of state control: The military and the police. As De Tocqueville stated: no one seemed to have had the faintest inkling that the protector might one day become the master. 10 The police are the arm of the state and the enforces of law which detracts our freedom and liberty. Leo Tolstoy, a famous writer and anarchist, that one characteristic is common: that if any man does not fulfil them [law], those who have made these laws will send armed men, and the armed men will beat, deprive of freedom, or even kill, the man who does not obey the law. 11 A very pessimistic conception of government is present here while liberalists, conservatives and fascists advocate the need and utility of government, anarchists see it as a scourge on society. An anarcho-communist, Mikalail Bakunin, wrote, states can find no other grounds for joint action than the concerted enslavement of the masses who constitute the overall basis and purpose of their existence. 12 On Society Society, is the answer to anarchists, to the key question of how to achieve rational cooperation among individuals beyond the level of small groups without resorting to coercion and legimitsing oppression. Rousseau was quoted at the beginning of this essay; man is born free and is everywhere in chains lies at the heart of anarchism, an unashamed utopianism. 13 A belief in the natural goodness, or at least the potential goodness of mankind. Social order therefore arises spontaneously; it does not require the machinery of law and order. Society will not be as Hobbes describes brutal and aggressive because for anarchists, order is implicit in nature itself: It is not something that needs to be achieved or constructed, but something, that if humans refrain from interfering with, will simply emerge and blossom. 14 Society will create the individuals who have strongly internalised values and can live cooperatively without the threat of force. For anarchists, society is the opposite of the state. Society is the repository of all good aspects of social life and organization while the state incorporates all the bad aspects of social interaction. The state is an incubus upon society a distorting factor. 15 But will it work? So far the general theory, which can be broadly applicable to most variations of anarchism, has been outlined. It seems straightforward to assume that government and law, in their very essence, consist of restrictions on freedom, and freedom is the greatest of all political goods. A conclusion that would simply follow is that law and government must be abolished if freedom is our goal. There are however many theoretical and practical weaknesses to this line of thinking which will be examined in this section. These weaknesses range from the problem of political participation to neglecting the history of state evolution and its necessities in modern society. The assumptions on human nature are problematic for anarchist theory. Anarchists believe that human nature is inherently good. If allowed unrestricted freedom in a society, humans would work to mutually benefit each other. However human nature is not a fixed quantity, but rather something that varies (within limits) according to the social and political context in which members find themselves. As history has shown, human nature in a large amount of people is definitely not something that could be labelled as good. Also, what one grouping of society may find as good, another may regard as bad. This is present in religious conflicts that have occurred over time. Critics are correct in their labelling of anarchists as naive because the only time an unrestricted society could have existed as anarchist describe, is in primitive communal tribes. This has also lead anarchists to be labelled as nostalgic in their theory. To believe that societies could function today without some form of regulator is a direct appeal to the past. The process to attain an anarchist society is ambiguous. As April Carter explains: The nature of anarchist theory means that in any important political crisis, individuals who seek to influence events by accepting a leadership position for example in a government are open to charges of gross inconsistency or treachery to the cause. 16 Also, the problem of difference of opinion between anarchist theorists poses a hindrance to changing society. Are anarchists prepared to sink their differences? Or ally themselves with the popular movement? Is it action or principles? Even when a revolution has occurred, anarchism faces a major contradiction. It will be no doubt, that the type of anarchist model will meet opposition from other anarchists. A compromise will have to be struck and in the event that it is, the only way to make it formal to give clear outline is to enshrine it in law. Anarchists will once again find themselves living under expectations. Whether anarchism will produce more than suggestive ideas for a theory of politics, or whether a specifically anarchist movement will ever achieve success are both open to considerable doubt. But the criticisms do not stop here. There are serious questions about economic coordination of production. A large measure of self-sufficiency may be possible in an economy made up of peasant farmers and artisans, but not one composed of high technology industries. 17 It may be possible to break down complex technological processes in such a way that each unit can be managed efficiently by its own workers. But the more this is done, the more each unit becomes dependent on its suppliers and/or customers. Coordination becomes increasingly vital, and there appears only two ways in which it can be achieved; by the market and by central planning. No anarchist has devised a coherent third alternative to apply to modern industrial society. On the issue of law and order, anarchists claim (Kropotkin and Bakunin) that sanctions would be enforced by society on the person who breaks common convention. For example, in the case of property theft, it may be the case that the person is restrained from others (and in last resort) being excluded from the community. One problem however, in the absence of a uniform body of laws, people do not know where they stand. They may be unsure which activities are prohibited and which ones are not. Anarchists are still yet to formulate a realistic and attractive account of the state-less society. 18 No matter how restrictive or evil the state may be, it does not follow that it should be abolished unless there if a preferable alternative. Even later anarchists envisage a network of largely ultra self-sufficient communities. But the specialisation required by modern industrial production implies a much greater a much greater interdependence of productive functions between different manufacturing units. As George Crowder explains: A single community could hope to manufacture a relatively complex machine like a car starting only from raw materials, but would have to co-operate with other communities. Even supposing the will to cooperate on an equitable basis, this would necessitate a degree of coordination of productive activity for which mainstream anarchist thought, rejecting both government and (except in the case of Proudhon) the market, makes little allowance. Productive as well as distributive, interdependence therefore points to a kind of, degree of complexity, in modern social conditions that places a serious obstacle on the way of anarchists. 19 As can be seen, trying to establish an anarchist society in a highly urbanised, seven billon plus populated world is in the realms of absurdity. Anarchists claim that a society based on cooperation, contracts and agreements, unfortunately would be too fragile a notion in which to found a stable social order. Norman. P. Barry continues, In fact this is not all a theory of how anarchy might work but rather a logical deduction of a state-less society from certain dubious propositions about human nature. If post-capitalist human nature is defined as cooperative rather than competitive, and there is no private property to dispute, than a coercive state will obviously no longer be required. 20 In his book The perfectibility of man, John Passmore says: it is quite a thing to say that they (perfecting mechanisms, example; political institutions) will in fact be used to perfect men. That is what the anarchists point out. But they themselves rely upon what one can only regard as myths: the myths of mans natural goodness, the myth of rebirth. Perfection is no more to be expected from the destruction of existing social institutions than from their extension and their strengthening strike them off, and they will weep for their lost security. 21 Anarchism in the 21st century. It would be easy to dismiss the whole idea of anarchism in the 21st century as pure fantasy. Anarchism after all has not had a major following since the early 20th century, and even then it failed to provide enough momentum for social change and political change. However, the enduring significance of anarchism is perhaps less that it has provided a basis for acquiring and maintaining political power, but rather it has challenged and therefore given promotion to other political ideologies. Anarchists have highlighted the coercive and destructive power of state processes otherwise looked over because of the fact of its necessity. It has, over the last forty years, had an impact on both the left and right, which fostered new movements entailing libertarian ideals. The new left encompassed a broad range of movements that were prominent in the late 1960s and early 70s, including student activism, anti-colonialism, feminism, and environmentalism. The new right also placed emphasis on the importance of individual freedom, but believes that this can only be achieved by market competition. 22 Harold Barclay said that it appears, all we are left with is a politics of perpetual protest. 23 Never will anarchists believe that the world is peaceful and individual rights are guaranteed. If the society to achieved appears to be out of reach it is no reason to give up the struggle. Anarchists will never conform! They have shown us that belief in freedom and cooperation, which must be a goal for human nature, helps to undermine the dehumanising and authoritian consequences of state power. 24 Karen Goaman and Mo Dodson comment that anarchist thinking today plays a more symbolic and subversive character. Anarchism has been experimenting with humorous and playful subversiveness to give a more unorthodox approach to politics. Some examples are the literature pamphlet The Artful Dodger, The Away with cars campaign and the SCUM Manifesto. These examples illustrate a line of symbolic activity which has been sporadic but notably rich in anarchism and fringe and marginal currents allied to it. 25 This type of subversive action is in itself significant to the anarchist movement because it highlights the evolutionary track anarchy is taking. Conclusion. Anarchism is in retreat today. If we fail to elaborate its democratic dimension, we miss the opportunity not only to form a vital movement but to prepare people for a revolutionary social praxis in the future. 26 Is anarchism destined to the dustbin of history? Is it just a pool of ideas on which other political thinkers and traditions can draw on at will? To argue that anarchism is irrelevant because it has long since lost the potential to become a mass movement misses the point. As the world becomes increasingly complex and fragmented, it may be that it is mass politics that is dead. 27 Anarchism has pointed to some very important things that are worth considering. The first is simply the imperfections of relations of power. It was Lord Acton that said, power corrupts, but absolute power corrupts absolutely. Anarchists were no doubt the first to criticise authoritarian regimes while others tried to keep a distance. A second point is anarchist ideals of free, unrestricted social relationships. Every now and then it is healthy to be reminded that following chain of commands blindly, are not always the most fulfilling and productive course of actions. Today it can already be seen in organizations that have placed all employees on the same level and as a result, mutual cooperation has in fact flourished (software companies are an example). David Miller believes that this is the direction that anarchists have turned too instead of attacks on the state. It seemed more profitable to urge the gradual reconstruction of social life, partly for its own sake and partly so that people may eventually come to depend less on central authority. 28 A great deal can be learned from anarchists, both about the abuses of power and about the problems and possibilities of free social relationships. In the end, anarchism is a theory still worth studying. 1 Cited in James Joll, The Anarchists (Boston: Little, Brown, 1965), p. 30. 2 Harold Barclay, People Without Government, (London: Kahn Averill with Cienfuegos Press, 1982), p. 12. 3 Cited in April Carter, The Political Theory of Anarchism (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1971), p. 13. 4 J. Joll, The Anarchists, p. 31. 5 April Carter, The Political Theory of Anarchism, p. 17. 6 William Godwin, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, in Marshall S. Shatz (ed. ), The essential Works of Anarchism (New York: Quadrangle Books, 1972), pp. 3-41. p. 7. 7 No. 100, June 1969, 161, cited in April Carter, The Political Theory of Anarchism, p. 28. 8 cited in Ibid. , p. 29. 9 Ibid, p. 33. 10 Alexis de Tocqueville, The old Regime and the French revolution (New York: Double Day Anchor Books, 1955), p. 69. (original published 1856, publisher unknown) 11 Cited in Carter, p. 41. 12 Cited in Andrew Heywood, Modern Political Ideologies (London: Macmillan Press, 1992), p. 127. 13 Richard Sylvan, Anarchism in Goodin, Robert, Philip Pettit (ed. ), A companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy (Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1993), pp. 215-242. 14 Andrew Heywood, Political Ideologies: An Introduction (London: Macmillan Press, 1992). p. 193. 15 George Growder, Classical Anarchism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991). p. 191. 16 April Carter, p. 169. 17 David Miller, Anarchism, (London: J. M. Dent Sons Ltd, 1984), p. 171. 18 George Growder, Classical Anarchism, p. 192. 19 Ibid,. p. 193. 20 Norman, P. Barry, An intro to modern political theory, (London: Macmillan Press, 1981). p. 83. 21 John Passmore, The Perfectibility of Man (London: Duckworth, 1970), p. 189. 22 Andrew Heywood, Political Ideologies, p. 211. 23 Harold Barclay, People Without Government, p. 134. 24 David Morland, Anarchism, Human Nature and History, in Jon Purkis James Bowen (ed. ), Twenty-first Century Anarchism (London: Cassell Press, 2000), pp. 8-21. p. 21. 25 Goaman, Karen Mo Dodson. , A Subversive Current? : Contempory Anarchism Considered in Jon Purkis James Bowen (ed. ), Twenty-first Century Anarchism (London: Cassell Press, 2000), pp. 83-97. 26 Murray Bookchin, Anarchism, Marxism, and the Future of the Left (Edinburgh: A. K. Press, 1999). p. 154. 27 Andrew Heywood, p. 211. 28 David Miller, Anarchism, p. 183. Andrew Wallace/1592038/Dr. P. Bradshaw/Political Science/MAS2010.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Essay on Annotated Bibliography Form Essay on Annotated Bibliography Form Annotated Bibliography Form Your Name: Jeremy Marshall Your Class: (circle 1) 8:00 // 9:30 // 11:00 Article Citation #1: MLA Citation: "Claudius And Macbeth: A Comparison Between A Villain And A Tragic-Hero." (2011): OAIster. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. Summary Macbeth and Claudius have a lot of similarities have a lot of similarities, for an example both are murders and are tyrants. They share one particular characteristic there both hero-villains. They even display some characteristics of a tragic hero. They both became villains by circumstances that were not really there faults in a sense. Aside from the few tragic hero characteristics they do share they are still treacherous and evil man that both were on power trips. They even had wives that stood by their side with there no good deeds. Analysis: The article talks about the characteristics of Macbeth and Claudius. In my opinion this is a good comparison because the characters arenÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly alike but they are very similar in many ways. They both could be heroes in sense but are way too treacherous and conniving. They both were villains by force and not by choice because they made some questionable mistakes in their respective plays. Article Citation #2: MLA Citation: Serdar, Ãâ"ZTÃÅ"RK. "Two Notorious Villains In Two Famous Literary Works: Satan In Paradise Lost And Macbeth In Macbeth." Journal Of International Social Research 2.9 (2009): 333-339. Humanities International Complete. Web. 27 Apr. 2015. Summary Satan in Paradise Lost and Macbeth have similarities and differences. They both had ambition in trying to succeed in a particular thing. Macbeth being hero turned evil with his self-mindedness and his ambition to be king of Scotland. With Satan in this particular play he tried to take over paradise and be next to the father. Obviously neither one of the characters succeeded in there plans. They are both exiled in way, Macbeth is exiled psychology from his friend and Satan is exiled from the Garden of Eden. The main difference between them though Macbeth was not coward like Satan was. Analysis: This article talks about the similarities and differences of Macbeth and Satan. They were both villains and hurt innocent people to get where they thought they needed to be. The article showed me that these characters are very similar in many ways. Helping me to draw the conclusion that maybe
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
10 of the Most Inspirational Parts of Nursing The crazy shifts, the constant wrestling with life and death. What keeps a nurse going?Ã Here is a random list of the most important things a nurse holds onto in order to keep showing up for work. 1. PassionThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the drive that brings nursesÃ to medicine in the first place. Keeping sight of this and staying connected to the desire to help people are vital in any nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s career.2. RespectFor each other, for the profession, for the lives so often hanging in the balance.3. HumorLaughter, we all know, is often the best medicine. In order to make it through the toughest days, itÃ¢â¬â¢s often mandatory toÃ find humor in the darkness.4. GratitudeAs important for nurses as everyone else- perhaps more so. Being thankful for patients, personalÃ health, and theÃ patience of families and friends is key.5. TeamworkNursesÃ work together to make it look seamless, but it takes a lot of individual effort and care.Ã 6. Learning and teachingBoth are the best way to keep t he passion up- whether by mentoring and teaching a new colleague or fulfilling your own desire to keep learning more and advancing in your professional development.Ã 7. AdvocacyBeing there for the patient and standing up for him or her when they canÃ¢â¬â¢t speak for themselves is challenging, but necessary and humbling.8. TrustWithout it, nursesÃ are sunk. TheyÃ have to trust themselves, theirÃ knowledge, and the people theyÃ working with, or they canÃ¢â¬â¢t help anyone.9. CourageNurses couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do their jobs without it. It takes courage just to come to work- more to take a stand whenever necessary for patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests.10. InnovationExciting decisions happen every day, in very setting. Nurses are always usingÃ what we know to make the world a healthier, safer place.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
American Government - Personal Statement Example After the approval of the bill by both the chambers, the bill is sent to the president to be signed by him. President Obama has implemented his agenda and passed many bills to support his agenda. He developed strategic plans for the defense, signed a number of economic acts, signed act to reduce pollution and resolve energy and environmental crises and done almost everything to implement his agenda (The White House, 2010). Still he is unable to fully implement his agenda. Past presidents have done a remarkable work for the development and prosperity of United States. To implement their agenda they worked hard and signed may acts, bills and agreements in favor of the United States (The White House, 2010). Although they were not fully succeeded in implementing their agenda but they succeeded in implementing most of the agenda. Former President Bill Clinton tried to implement his agenda but faced a harsh opposition led by former President Jimmy Carter (The White House,